Conures: Aratinga or Pyrrhura
Conures are regarded as very playful birds that are also capable of extremely loud vocalization. These birds are not good for apartments or other multiple dwelling households (condos, town homes, etc.) as their shrill call be heard from some distance. Most conures are also good at mimicking human speech and can develop moderate vocabularies. Their brilliant colors and extremely playful nature make them highly enjoyable members of the family as long as you can deal with some noise.
Natural Habitat: Caribbean, Central and South America
Body Weight: 100-120 g
Age of Sexual Maturity: 1-2 years
Life Span: 15-20 years
Clutch Size: varies according to species
Incubation Period: varies according to species
Quaker/Monk Parrot: Myiopsittus Monachus
The Quaker Parrot, Monk Parrot or Grey Breasted Parrot has a reputation for being a very loud and destructive bird. They are illegal in several states, so check with your state or local laws before getting one. These birds require a lot of attention and enrichment to prevent boredom or destructive behavior. In general, they are not good talkers.
Body Weight: 150 g
Age of Sexual Maturity: 1 year of age
Life Span: 25-30 years
Clutch Size: 4-6 eggs
Incubation Period: 23 days
Husbandry (the general care, necessities and special considerations) and dietary requirements are relatively straight forward.
Enclosure/Cage (i.e., size, perches and substrates/bedding, etc.)
The enclosure/cage should be large enough for the bird to have adequate mobility and be able to spread the wings out completely without coming into contact with the cage walls. Multiple perches of varying diameter should be available and positioned to prevent food and water contamination with fecal material. This will inevitably happen regardless of our efforts, so it is important to change water and food daily if possible. The positioning of the perches is also very important. Most birds like to spend the majority of their time on the highest perch. Be sure not to make this perch the widest or largest perch, as this can lead to pressure sores over time. Ideally it should allow for 3/4 of the birds foot to wrap around the perch. Note: Avoid birdy beds, tents, boxes or any other structure that may mimic/resemble a nest or cavity. These structures will only stimulate unwanted and unhealthy reproductive behavior in both male and female birds.
Cage bedding should consist of should consist of newspaper or some other paper based product (e.g., carefresh or yesterdays news) and placed under a grate to prevent contact with the bird. While this grate may prevent contact to bedding, it can accumulate a significant amount of fecal material if not cleaned/checked daily. Keeping the environment clean (changing papers at bottom of cage, cleaning grate, cleaning bowls) is of vital importance as unsanitary conditions provide ideal breeding grounds for bacteria and fungus. This is one of the principal reasons why organic substrates (coconut bark, walnut shells, corn cob, etc.) are NOT recommended.
Toys and other enrichment may be placed in cage (avoid objects that may contain zinc or lead as these are toxic to birds), but the cage furniture should not prevent adequate movement around the cage. Mental enrichment allows for a better socialized and interactive pet. Birds spend the majority of their day foraging and looking for food. Therefore, it is important to encourage captive birds to occupy their time with healthy, beneficial and natural activities. Failure to do so may result in difficult situations, including feather destruction, mutilation, biting/re-directed aggression, etc.
An adequate diet should consist of a primarily pelleted ration (harrison’s, zupreem, roudy bush, etc.) and supplemented with vegetables rich in beta-carotene, vitamin A, calcium and fiber. Berries and melons can be offered in moderation. Try to avoid: white breads, white pasta, white rice, corn, potatoes or anything else of a soft consistency as this can mimic regurgitated food from a mate. Foods rich in simple sugars should also be avoided (e.g., apples, oranges, carrots). Foods high in fat contribute to a hormonal elevation (e.g., fat stores are built up just prior to reproductive season in the wild). This is particularly important in the case of conures as they have a very strong reproductive drive.
Both grooming (i.e., preening) and bathing are natural behaviors inherent to all birds. Many birds in captivity come from a relatively humid environment. In addition to being a normal behavior, it serves to occupy their time and improve the general condition of skin and feathers, as well as providing hydration to their nares (i.e., nostrils). Most species of conures come from a rainforest/high humidity environment. If we do not attempt to mimic this in captivity problems can develop (e.g., dry skin, feather destruction/over grooming, rhinoliths/obstructed nares, over abundance of dander – which can be harmful to humans, etc.). It is recommended that your bird should receive or at least be offered a bath every 2-3 days if possible, if not at least a minimum of once a week, more during winter/dryer months.
Nail Trims: Even if rough, sand or concrete perches are provided often birds require routine nail trims. The tip of the nail should be even (e.g., form a straight line) with the toe pad. Failure to maintain this could result in improper stance and therefore pressure being placed on a non-loadbearing structure causing sores (“bumble foot” or pododermatitis).
Wing Trims: It is always a good idea to maintain your birds wings trimmed. This is solely for the safety of both you and your bird, it does not hurt and should not be considered cruel or inhumane (feathers are like hair and will eventually grow back). Birds can become spooked or excited and fly out an open door or window. Once outside the bird may become disoriented in the new environment and seek the highest perch, which is often a tree branch well out of reach, or just continue to fly/glide away. Since they have never been outside and in an unfamiliar environment they will not know how to find their way back home. Some owners may desire to keep their birds fully flighted which is perfectly fine as long as they are cautious and aware of the consequences. In rare circumstances not trimming the wings may be recommended by your veterinarian (i.e., behavioral issues).
Beak Trims: In most circumstances birds do not require beak trims. They may be required if your bird has a malocclusion (e.g., scissor beak), abnormal growth as a result of previous trauma or some other pathologic condition.
There are three components to bird droppings. There is a liquid portion – urine, a white paste – urates, and feces – typically the largest portion of the dropping and will be either a green or brownish tubular shaped substance. NOTE: a quick way to tell if your bird is eating is to observe the droppings. The stool should be the largest portion. If there is consistently more urates and urine, then it is a good indication that your bird may not be eating as well as you would think.
Common Disease Syndromes
Chronic Egg Laying:
Females may interpret a toy, mirror or even you or other member of the household – “flock.” Like chickens they are capable of laying eggs without the presence of a male. These eggs are not viable as they have not been fertilized, but the risk is still the same. Chronic egg laying is a significant drain on energy and calcium stores and can lead to pathologic fractures and the life threatening condition referred most commonly to as “egg binding.” Symptoms of egg binding issues: labored breathing, tail bobbing, holding stools (i.e., making infrequent large deposits).
Chronic respiratory infections are common. Decreased humidity and poor nutrition can lead to this condition. Treatment is aimed at correcting the underlying cause and elimination of any bacterial or fungal infection present.
A high incidence of tumors is commonly seen in older birds. Some common tumors include tumors of the preening gland, liver and skin. Surgical removal if possible, is considered treatment of choice.
Parasitic infestations are relatively uncommon in the conures. With that being said, there are several parasites both external and internal that can affect most birds.
Feather destructive behavior in companion birds is a very hot topic in avian medicine today. Due to the complex nature of this frustrating disease syndrome, a thorough medical exam and behavior consult should be conducted to help elucidate the contributing factors and attempt to decrease the undesired behavior.
While it can initiate as a result of a medical condition, the large behavioral component makes treatment/diagnosis very difficult. If it is not solely related to a medical problem it is most likely that it will only be controlled but never completely resolved. It can become an extension of normal grooming/preening, in addition to becoming an attention grabbing behavior (e.g., bird picks or mutilates, you come running or yell, to the bird this is a positive reaction and well worth the damage).
Quaker Mutilation Syndrome:
This condition can occur suddenly and not be directly related to any previous feather destructive behavior/episode. Presentation is similar to mutilation in other species, but more severe and eventually fatal in Quakers. This is due primarily to the severity of damage they inflict. Unlike other parrot species it is unknown what causes this syndrome therefore it is difficult to control and eliminate.
Birds may vocalize for a number of different reasons. In the wild, vocalization may be used to locate flock members and warn of potential dangers. Conures are known for their ear piercing calls. Often owners believe their parrot is vocalizing excessively or due to pain. To properly deal with this issue, a thorough evaluation of the patient, home environment, and social interaction with family must be conducted before specific recommendations can be made.
Physical violence between birds is almost non-existent in the wild. Birds rely heavily on non-verbal communication and various display behaviors to resolve issues within the flock. In captivity, biting is mainly a learned behavior in response to a negative stimulus. Some species learn to bite readily and care must be taken to avoid re-enforcing this behavior. For extremely aggressive birds, stick training and other positive re-enforcing activities may be used to help alleviate this undesirable behavior.
Blood feathers are a normal stage of development for every feather on the bird’s body. As a new feather grows there is a purple/blue shaft that contains a blood supply. Some birds will injure these shafts either by falling or thrashing in the cage. The blood-filled shaft is broken/cracked and bleeding occurs. These immature feathers are sensitive and can be painful when broken. The largest feathers on the body are wing feathers and tail feathers. These are the blood feathers most often broken by birds. Frequently, broken blood feathers need to be pulled out in order to stop bleeding. Pain management is also an important part of blood feather treatment. In most occasions all that is required is direct pressure. A clotting surface such as flour, cornstarch or styptic powder will aid in the hemostasis (stopping the blood). While it may seem there is a significant amount of blood loss occurring it is unlikely that the bird will bleed out. If untreated it may continue to bleed.