Budgerigar/Parakeet: Melopsittacus Undulatus

This is another very popular bird among pet bird species. The name is derived from aboriginal origins and literally translates to “little bird that tastes good.” Despite its small size, it has many of the behavioral characteristics of the larger pet bird species along with the ability to develop a strong companion bond. “Budgies” have the ability, if fostered and encouraged, to develop quite an extensive vocabulary. Initially they are slightly standoffish, but with work and interaction, they can become hand tamed companions.

Quick Facts:

Natural Habitat/Distribution: Continental Australia
Body Weight: 30-40 g (English Budgies: 50-60 g)
Age of Sexual Maturity: 5 months-1 year of age
Life Span: 4-7 years.
Clutch Size: 4-8 eggs
Incubation Period: 18 days

Husbandry (the general care, necessities and special considerations) and dietary requirements are relatively straight forward.

Enclosure/Cage (i.e., size, perches and substrates/bedding, etc.)

The enclosure/cage should be large enough for the bird to have adequate mobility and be able to spread the wings out completely without coming into contact with the cage walls. Multiple perches of varying diameter should be available and positioned to prevent food and water contamination with fecal material. This will inevitably happen regardless of our efforts, so it is important to change water and food daily if possible. The positioning of the perches is also very important. Most birds like to spend the majority of their time on the highest perch. Be sure not to make this perch the widest or largest perch, as this can lead to pressure sores over time. Ideally it should allow for 3/4 of the birds foot to wrap around the perch.  Note:  Avoid birdy beds, tents, boxes or any other structures that may mimic/resemble a nest or cavity.  These structures will only stimulate unwanted and unhealthy reproductive behavior in both male and female birds (mirrors will often serve as a stimulous for this particular species).

Cage bedding should consist of should consist of newspaper or some other paper based product (e.g., carefresh or yesterdays news). While grates may prevent contact with bedding, it can accumulate a significant amount of fecal material if not cleaned/checked daily. Keeping the environment clean (changing papers at bottom of cage, cleaning grate, cleaning bowls) is of vital importance as unsanitary conditions provide ideal breeding grounds for bacteria and fungus. This is one of the principal reasons why organic substrates (coconut bark, walnut shells, corn cob, etc.) are NOT recommended.

Toys and other enrichment may be placed in cage (avoid objects that may contain zinc or lead as these are toxic to birds), but the cage furniture should not prevent adequate movement around the cage. Mental enrichment allows for a better socialized and interactive pet. Birds spend the majority of their day foraging and looking for food. Therefore, it is important to encourage captive birds to occupy their time with healthy, beneficial and natural activities. Failure to do so may result in difficult situations, including feather destruction, mutilation, biting/re-directed aggression, etc.


Like cockatiels, budgies are primarily seed eaters in the wild, but it is not limited to only seeds. They have the ability, unlike other species, to metabolize the few nutrients found in seeds. To reflect this, the captive diet should include seeds in addition to a high quality pelleted ration (harrison’s, zupreem, roudy bush, etc.). There are many commercially available pelleted diets and they are used primarily to assist in providing essential micronutrients that are lacking in an all seed diet. The pelleted diet should comprise about 50-60% of the daily caloric intake, while seeds and vegetables high in beta-carotene (e.g., sweet potato, carrots and dark leafy greens) should comprise approximately 30-40% of the diet. Treats should comprise of no more than 10% of the daily caloric intake.


Both grooming and bathing are natural behaviors inherent to all birds. Many birds in captivity come from a relatively humid environment. In addition to being a normal behavior, it serves to occupy their time and improve the general condition of skin and feathers, as well as providing hydration to their nares (i.e., nostrils). While they may come from an arid environment there is still a certain level of humidity that their natural environment provides. If we do not mimic this in captivity problems can develop (e.g., dry skin, feather destruction/over grooming, rhinoliths/obstructed nares, over abundance of dander – which can be harmful to humans, etc.). Old World Species- Africa and Australia, are high feather dander species. So it is of even greater importance to provide increased humidity (i.e., bath), in these species. In order to prevent this it is recommended that your bird should receive or at least offered a bath every 2-3 days if possible, if not at least a minimum of once a week, more during winter/dryer months.

Nail Trims:  Even if rough, sand or concrete perches are provided often bids require routine nail trims.  The tip of the nail should be even (e.g., form a straight line) with the toe pad.  Failure to maintain this could result in improper stance and therefore pressure being placed on a non-loadbearing structure causing sores (“bumble foot” or pododermatitis).

Wing Trims:  It is always a good idea to maintain your birds wings trimmed.  This is solely for the safety of both you and your bird, it does not hurt and should not be considered cruel or inhumane (feathers are like hair and will eventually grow back).  Birds can become spooked or excited and fly out an open door or window.  Once outside the bird may become disoriented in the new environment and seek the highest perch, which is often a tree branch well out of reach, or just continue to fly/glide away.  Since they have never been outside and in an unfamiliar environment they will not know how to find their way back home.  Some owners may desire to keep their birds fully flighted which is perfectly fine as long as they are cautious and aware of the consequences.  In rare circumstances not trimming wings may be recommended by your veterinarian (i.e., behavioral issues).

Beak Trims:  In most circumstances birds do not require beak trims.  They may be required if your bird has a malocclusion (e.g., scissor beak), abnormal growth as a result of previous trauma or some other pathologic condition.


There are three components to bird droppings. There is a liquid portion – urine, a white paste – urates, and feces – typically the largest portion of the dropping and will be either a green or brownish tubular shaped substance. NOTE: a quick way to tell if your bird is eating is to observe the droppings. The stool should be the largest portion. If there is consistently more urates and urine, then it is a good indication that your bird may not be eating as well as you would think.

Common Disease Syndromes

Chronic Egg Laying 
Females may interpret a toy or mirror. Like chickens they are capable of laying eggs without the presence of a male. These eggs are not viable as they have not been fertilized, but the risk is still the same. Chronic egg laying is a significant drain on energy and calcium stores and can lead to pathologic fractures and the life threatening condition referred most commonly to as “egg binding.”

Upper-Respiratory Infections/Pneumonia
Chronic respiratory infections are common. Decreased humidity and poor nutrition can lead to this condition. Treatment is aimed at correcting the underlying cause and elimination of any bacterial or fungal infection present.

A high incidence of tumors is commonly seen in older birds. Some common tumors include tumors of the preening gland and testicle/kidney (these can only be controlled medically, but prognosis is guarded). Budgies in particular are prone to lipomas – fatty/lipid based tumors. Surgical removal if possible, is considered treatment of choice. In addition to surgical intervention, L-Carnatine will often be used to help with lipid metabolization.

Parasitic infestations are relatively uncommon in the captive pet bird. With that being said, there are several parasites both external and internal that can affect most birds. The most common occurring parasite in Budgies is knemidokoptes – scaley face mite. Symptoms include: honeycomb appearance around cere, beak, eyes, leg and feet

Feather Destruction/Mutilation
Also known as feather picking, chewing or mowing. This can be a very complex and multifaceted issue. Luckily this is not a common occurring problem in Budgies. If feather loss/destruction is occurring, it is most likely indicative of some underlying medical condition.

Blood Feathers
Blood feathers are a normal stage of development for every feather on the bird’s body. As a new feather grows there is a purple/blue shaft that contains a blood supply. Some birds will injure these shafts either by falling or thrashing in the cage. The blood-filled shaft is broken/cracked and bleeding occurs. These immature feathers are sensitive and can be painful when broken. The largest feathers on the body are wing feathers and tail feathers. These are the blood feathers most often broken by birds. Frequently, broken blood feathers need to be pulled out in order to stop bleeding. Pain management is also an important part of blood feather treatment. In most occasions all that is required is direct pressure. A clotting surface such as flour, cornstarch or styptic powder will aid in the hemostasis (stopping the blood). While it may seem there is a significant amount of blood loss occurring it is unlikely that the bird will bleed out. If untreated it may continue to bleed.